Child labour and the worst forms of child labour, as children are trapped in forced and bonded labour. . supported project for the elimination of child labour. reference to Child Labour Project (NCLP) –. Impediments and Policy Interventions. Study Conducted By: Prognosys e Services Pvt. Ltd. Noida, Uttar Pradesh. million girls and boys trapped in child labour. In , the pace of . Juanita had never attended school but since joining the project she has proven to be.
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Publication of Stop Child Labour – School is the best place to work (SCL). Stop Child Labour . sereport/ser/ser_nclppdf multi- stakeholder project with . and continued funding its National Child Labor Project. (NCLP). Children in India are engaged in the worst forms of child labor. Children work in .. smeltitherabpigs.ml ILO-IPEC. Converging Against Child Labour: Support for India's Model. Project. Children in the Philippines engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in armed Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of bangkok/ilo-manila/documents/publication/wcms_pdf.
On this backdrop this study tries to critically evaluate the question of cultural roots of child labour and labour relations in Indian tradition which have been rooted in rigid structural forms and which are now negotiating with new equations in the wake of the market economy. Deviating from numerous studies probing into this issue of poverty and economic relations, this paper probes into the inherent contradictions of cultural tradition embedded with the new global scenario which opens the possibility of alternative paradigmatic thoughts.
The problem of child labour is not only a disgrace to developing nations but is also an issue of the future generations. Linking it with social norms, children were supposed to develop their personality and future role of adult within their family.
This was considered a socialization process Bose, Since most of the traditional occupations have been family-based, children neither had difficult working conditions nor long working hours. Instead they were guided and motivated by their parents to learn skills.
There was no question of child exploitation and any categorization of labour based on age differences was not at an issue in traditional and simple societies Singh, However, subsequently, serious socio-economic problems coupled with complex forms of division of labour produced by a market oriented society led to deterioration in the conditions of children participating in the labour market, particularly in developing societies.
For industrialising societies it was then considered insignificant falling under the purview of changing socio-political structure of society. This led to an epistemological conception of childhood as a separate category from adulthood which has gained acceptance everywhere.
Henceforth the concept of universal primary education was accepted as a societal necessity thereby sending children to school rather than forcing them into wage labour Bellamy, and Ingrid, It is also indicative of the problems of most societies on the path of modernization that the very nature of this process itself creates new problems regarding child labour.
The Marxists have criticised the functional role of schooling in their discourse where schooling is seen as primarily concerned with the production and conditioning of labour power and is to be addressed in the complex matrix of childhood days, schooling and adult labour. One can presume that today's victims of child labour would be the potential unskilled labourer in the market of tomorrow.
In spite of instances of ratification by international institutions like the United Nations on the Rights of the Child, the issue becomes a source of worry in developing societies and in the discourse of developmental paradigms.
According to the latest report estimated by ILO, there are million working children in the world today Stegeman, op. As far as the Indian condition is concerned, estimates of the number of working children varies with data collected by different agencies.
Albeit, the number of child workers found in rural areas under the age of 15 amounted to over 89 percent in An empirical study shows that child migration from rural areas was rampant and most of these children belonged to landless families Sharma and Viswa Mittar, It clearly shows that the incidence of child labour has occurred more in rural areas. Another important factor drawn from several studies is the linkage between child labour and poverty Kabeer, Nambissan and Subramanian, , Tripathy, , Murty, , and Sharma and Vishwa, Paradoxically, though the poverty level in India has come down slowly over the years through the effort of poverty eradication programmes by the state and civil society, incidence of child labour has remained high in India.
It totally disproves the very basis of attributing child labour to poverty. Historical experience in India does not support the argument of child labour being linked with poverty Antony and Gayathri, Further, state level analysis shows that states with low incidence of child labour are not necessarily the rich states Mahendra and Ravi: But it does not mean that poverty is irrelevant in this domain.
At a time where the entire discourse of social science is focused on the search for multiple paradigmatic thought so as to explore the social conditions of human practices with a holistic perspective, it is imperative to explore unidentified areas for a better understanding of social problems. At the first is the question of the cultural roots of child and labour relations in the Indian tradition which is conditioned by rigid structural forms, and at the second it locates the complex situation of child labour in a market economy.
Both these factors have the potential to destroy the paraphernalia of social policies and legal measures promulgated towards eliminating child labour. Sociology as a discipline, distinct from the above mode of thought, looks at labour from the point of work - a human activity that transforms nature and is usually undertaken in social situations.
Exactly what counts as work is dependent on the specific social circumstances and activities and locates how they are interpreted by those who are involved in it. Emile Durkheim defines work through three principles in the context of the industrial revolution in which society moved from simple to complex structures.
For him, work determines the division of labour where social needs are to be satisfied. Secondly, the causes and conditions of work are dependent. And the third principle discusses the classificatory principles presenting abnormal forms.
Unless we understand the symbolic culture especially through the mirror of power relations, we cannot locate the present form of work relations in complex social situations. Labour as an occupational category of human activity started with a different equation as opposed to the matrix of market formations subsequently, especially current society which shows that these activities are not simply its survival strategies Grint, This rational principle leads the conceptualization of child labour.
At one level, child labour can be perceived as an economic necessity for a poor household for their survival, at another, it deals with the exploitation associated with maximizing profit motives of commercial enterprises at low wage rates Commission on Labour, However, defining one of the crucial dimensions of this concept - child work and child labour, Leiten argues that the former implies children who are occupied in work paid or unpaid, home or outside, economic or non-economic on the basic premise that the engagement of children in work affects their growth.
The latter tends to be instrumental in the market economy. Child labour in the context of economy, according to Leiten, needs more clarity in the discourses of development.
Conceptualizing the issue of child labour is a crucial task among not just academicians, but also by governmental agencies and civil rights groups. As far as the constitutional provision is concerned, universal education under the age of 14 years is meant for all which removes children from all kinds of work Antony and Gayathri, op.
Some of the studies show that conceptualization of child labour in India has developed ambiguities particularly with regard to various legislations from the Factory Act of to Child Labour Prohibition and Regulation Act On close scrutiny, we see that all these Acts have referred to different age groups while defining child labour see, Khan, Shakeel Ahmad, Very often, even the academic community seems to be in a dilemma as to what should be the determining age group to define child labour by using sophisticated statistical tools.
Sometimes it results in polemical clashes. Thus, Leiten argues that research in the field of child labour, in fact, needs to go beyond mere academic jargon, Leiten, Altogether this ambiguity on the definition of child labour negatively affected the very choice of policy options and practical solutions for implementation.
The utilitarians saw human activity as a commodity, gave up the values of social cohesion for the profiteering of the capitalism.
This encompasses all aspects of human society regardless of socio-economic and demographic conditions. Perhaps it may prove true in the case of child labour also. Nevertheless, this issue should not be reduced to merely scratching the surface level but should be delved deep into its roots in social institutions and cultural traditions.
AN OVERVIEW As we know that the categorization of child labour was not a subject matter in traditional societies, since labour and child have been considered as an integral part of social and economic relations.
The whole paradigm has been totally changed. The differentiation became visible during the British period when child labour was used and exploited in plantation works.
This abuse was brought to official notice first in the s Bose, op.
The Labour Investigation Committee of revealed actual instances of child labour. Before the introduction of Mines Act, , children were employed in industrial units and in cottage industries like beedi and glass making units. It later declined marginally to It was assumed that the attitude of the employers using children changed due to the mounting pressure from civil society and awareness building-up through mass media during the last couple of decades. Although the drive for universal education seems to be one of the candid attempts to capture all children under the age of 14 in school, the condition has not changed drastically.
According to the survey, 90 percent of child workers were found in rural India, out of which The rate of involvement of child labour varies from one state to another. Indeed, highest rate was observed in Andhra Pradesh which accounted for over In fact some of the micro studies show that initiatives taken to empower women folk in order to curtail child labour practices failed Velayutham, op.
Similarly though interventions through social labeling in particular work places rid it of child labour practices, those very children shifted and started to work in other undisturbed areas Alakh, These empirical evidences show that these working children are far from the fold of legal frame work and all kinds of interventions have been ineffective.
Lack of restructuring of existing policies according to the changing socio- economic conditions seems to be one of the reasons.
The caste system is culturally rooted and functionally visible in all social relations, and has penetrated into different realms of social life. Louise Dumont locates the caste system within social life as being a fundamental feature of the religious principles which actualizes itself within this domain. Nicholas B.
Log In Sign Up. Sandip Satbhai. Sandip B. Satbhai Asst. We can easily recognize the importance of the Child. The above statement has wide scope for interpretation. Child is very important for the development of the society at large.
The development of the Nation is exclusively based on the status of the Child. It is also true that this is one of the vulnerable groups in the society. We can also further add that Children are the Assets of the Nation. Children plays very significant role in the Nation building. All these make obligatory on everyone to protect and provide various safeguards to the children.
It is our prime duty to provide care and protection towards children as they are innocent. For the progress of the community at large we need to pay attention towards education of children. In reality there are various social evils with children; one of them is Child Labour.
The Child Labour system is in existence in developing and underdeveloped counties. As per the information available, India is one of the Countries where in large number of children below the age of 14 years working in various organizations. If there is no proper distribution of work among the member of the society then children automatically forced to do work for their survival.
Unemployment of adult members of the particular family results into Child Labour. In any Country protection of children and young people is of prime importance. So the responsibility to provide healthy atmosphere to the children to their fullest physical and mental development rests on all the civilized society.
As we are a part of the society the responsibility to take reasonable care of the children and young people is on the shoulder of all members of the society. Finally, it can be said that society at large morally responsible to maintain healthy atmosphere. Jayashree V. Child Labour is work that harms children or keeps them from attending school. The various problems arising in Social, Economic and Political condition is one of the major reasons for growth of this problem.
The International Labour Organization estimates that million children between the ages of 5 and 17 currently work under conditions that are considered illegal, hazardous, or extremely exploitative3.
The main prime purpose behind this is to provide effective safeguards to the children all over the globe.
The term Child Labour is used for employment of children below a certain age, which is considered illegal by law and custom. Child Labour is a world phenomenon which is considered exploitative and inhuman by many International Organizations. Child Labour is conventionally defined as a working child between age of who are doing labour or engaged in economical activity either paid or unpaid. The definition of child as given under Child Labour Prohibition and Regulation Act of defines child means a person who has not completed his fourteen years of age so by this definition the question of Child Labour is solved.
A number of policy initiatives and programmes have been undertaken in this country over the last decade. The basic object of all is dealing with the problem of rapidly increasing number of child workers. Indian Constitutional law, The formulation of a new National Child Labour Policy, the enactment of the Child Labour Prohibition and Regulation Act , the setting up of a Task Force on Child Labour, the adoption of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and other legislations governing problems of Child Labour have all formed a part of this process.
Corresponding initiatives were taken in the related area of education where a New Education policy was formulated which incorporated a separate component for working children. It is the objective of this paper to examine whether the legal framework available in this country can make an impact on the Child Labour situation.
Particularly, the present paper aimed at to understand the issue of Child Labour in the Indian context.
Two assumptions have broadly influenced Government's policies in respect of Child Labour. The first is that, Child Labour is a 'harsh reality' and one can only mitigate some of the harshness of the exploitative aspects of Child Labour.
The 'harsh reality' of Child Labour arises out of the fact that in the present state of development in the country many parents, on account of poverty, have to send their children to work in order to supplement their income and the income derived from the Child Labour, however to do work is essential to sustain the family. This is the 'poverty argument of Child Labour.
The second assumption is that there is a distinction between Child Labour and exploitation of the Child Labour. It has been accepted that a certain amount of Child Labour will persist under the family environment which is non-exploitative. This is not only inevitable but also desirable. At the same time, there are other forms of child work such as in 9 Justice P. Child Labour is not Child work. Helping parents in their household activities and business after school in their free time also contributes positively to the development of the child.
When such work is truly part of the socialization process and a means of transmitting skills from parents to child, it is not Child Labour. Through such work children can increase their status as family members and citizens and gain confidence and self-esteem. Child Labour, however, is the opposite of child work.
Child Labour hampers the normal physical, intellectual, emotional and moral development of a child. Children who are in the growing process can permanently distort or disable their bodies when they carry heavy loads or are forced to adopt unnatural positions at work for long hours.
FORMS OF CHILD LABOR
Children are less resistant to diseases and suffer more readily from chemical hazards and radiation than adults. There are number of legislations prohibiting employment of children below 14 and 15 years in certain specified employments. However, no procedure is laid down in any law for deciding in which employments, occupations, or the processes the employment of children is banned.
But there is no law to regulate the working conditions of children in those employments where children are not prohibited from working and are working under exploitative conditions. Following are the issues which can recognize as a Child Labour: The combination wide spread Poverty and the lack of a Social Security Network 2.
Lacking of effective Education Policy 3. Unemployment or Under employment of the Parents and Guardians of the Child 4. Population explosion, Traditional Occupations 7. Parental Attitude. Lack of Minimum Wages. Focused and reinforced action to eliminate Child Labour in the hazardous occupations by the end of the Plan period. Ensuring that the NCLPs have a focused time frame of 5 years with clearly defined targets. Linking the Child Labour elimination efforts with the scheme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan to ensure that small children in the age group of years get directly linked to school and the older children are mainstreamed to the formal education system through the rehabilitation centres.
Strengthening of the formal school mechanism in the area of Child Labour in the country to provide an attractive schooling system to the Child Labour force. Effective provision for health care for all children would be made. The monitoring system would be further systematized with the close involvement of the State Government to ensure that the project is able to attain its objectives within the given period.
Child labour issues and challenges
Equal important would be paid to the aspect of continuous awareness generation though print, folk and electronic media. The task of elimination of Child Labour be placed on the top of the nation's Agenda and given a "Mission Mode". Schemes for the ultimate attainment of the objective of elimination of Child Labour in a time bound manner.
Large-scale involvement of the voluntary organizations at the district level to assist in the running of the NCLP schools. Various issues regarding Child Labour in India: Issues of Child Labour in India are of great magnitude compared to other developing countries of the world. National Progress: Productive Efficiency: Social Security: Sexual exploitation: Juvenile Justice: Health Care: The wage structure of Adults: Illiteracy and ignorance of parents: As A response to the problem of Child Labour there are various legislations enacted to prohibit exploitation of Child Labour.Productive Efficiency: Many a time poverty forces parents to send their children to hazardous jobs.
They are also mostly the children of 3. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. There was no question of child exploitation and any categorization of labour based on age differences was not at an issue in traditional and simple societies Singh,