501 MUST VISIT CITIES PDF

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Must Visit Destinations - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File . txt) or read book online for free. It provides concise but Must Visit Cities [D. Brown, J. Brown, A. Findlay] Travel to the most spectacular and enigmatic cities download Must-Visit Cities ( . Cities for Kids Bounty Entertaining kids on holiday is always a Must- Visit Wild Places Jackum Brown, Fid Backhouse, Arthur Findlay.


501 Must Visit Cities Pdf

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I found this book titled " Must-Visit Destinations" at Costco a few years ago, and I've visited many places and never was I ever. Must-Visit Cities [D Brown] on smeltitherabpigs.ml *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. These pages hold wonders the world's largest and most dynamic cities. Must-Visit Destinations. By: D Brown, J Brown & A Findlay. A reference guide to those must-see places all over the globe. The book covers.

The return pilgrimage generally takes place around December, depending on conditions. It is bell ved tha millions of years ago gorongoro was roughly the same siz as Mount Kilimanjaro. However, when the volcanic activity subsided, it collapsed, forming the crater - the world's largest unbroken caJd ra.

The crater is m 2, It deep and cov rs an area of sq Ian sq mi. The park's diverse ecosystem includes active volcanoes, mountains, rolling plains, forests, lake dunes and the Olduvai Gorge. The area supports more than species of birds and species of mammals including elephants, cape buffalo, zebra, wildebeest and hippo. It is the only place in Tanzania where you can more or less be guaranteed a sighting of the indigenous black rhino, but you will not fmd giraffes as the tree-level food is spars.

Another highlight of the park is th abundance of 1Iamingoes of Lake Magadi on the crater's floor. The sp ctacl of a bubble-gum coloured cloud of these magnific nt birds against an emerald green backdrop is unforgettable!

The otherworldly seen is punctuated by the sight of Masai ribesmen in their traditional attire, herding cattle, sheep and goats. In the northern, and more remote, par of the conservation area are the Olmoti and Empakaai: East Africa's flamingoes breed at Lake atron, On the eastern side of Empakaai are the Bngakura rulns, which feature a terraced stone city and a complex irrigation system. The stone buildings are rare because the concept is unusual in this part of Africa.

NgoI'OIlg0r0 is accessible all year round, though during! Yell placed to provide fantastic views of! Tourists can observe wIIdl ffe from! Laetoll footllrints, prOV!

In Dr Mary Leakey invited Peter Jones to work with her at Olduvai, He helped assess the possible uses of the various stone tools and eventually uncovered the famous Laetoli Iootpnnts, which proved that our ancestors walked upright as long as 3.

Many of these can be seen in the museum. Olduvai Gorge is situated in the short grass plains, 20 Ian 12 mi , or an hour west of Ngorongoro Grater by car, in the Ngorongoro Ccnservation Area. In addition to the fossils, there are three species of birds that cannot be seen elsewhere in the surrounding areas: Olduvai is definitely worth adding to yoW" itinerary for a day trip en route to either Serengeti adona! Park or the gorongoro. Manyara The lush, tropical oasis of Lake Manyara National Park, located at the foo of the Rift VaUey makes an xcellent eli ersion on yow' visit to the.

Its shallow, alkaline waters are home to a variety of wildlife including the huge Bocks of liarningoes, lured by Lh crustaceans and algae lllat thriv in th high salt ant nt.

Th park, rich in acacia trees, attracts a number of giraffes, baboons, verv and blue monkeys and there is also a healthy elephant population, although poaching means that the numbers are far below those when Ian Douglas-Hamilton camped here in the s, conducting extensive studies of these beasts which he subsequently published in his classic book Among the Elephants.

Whil you ar here, you em watch th species of birds that reside her ,as well as a variety of mammals including gazelles, impalas buffaloes, wildebe st, hyenas, hippos and the famous. The b st place for vi wing lions and elephants, as well as many of the other larger rnarnmals is he dala Rlv r area.

Ther ar two hot springs, Maji Malo Ndoga and Maji Mota, that have large numb rs of flamingo if the river waters ar low. Js forest filled with a vaIieLy of trees.

Rwenzori National Park is an exotic paradise. Home t-O the third largest mountain in Africa, Mount Stanley 5, rn 16, ft , which was named after the first foreign explorer to Jay eyes on it during an 1 7 expedition, Rwenzori is known for its lush Afro Alpine vegetation and the plants and animals that thrive within it. Although as part of the East African Rift Valley system, unlike other high mountains such as Kllimanjaro and Mount Kenya, those here are not volcanic.

The landscap here: Symphonia trees, with their silver trunks and scarlet blooms, and podocarpus trees, with their fragrant evergreen scents, lend a soft, fresh, crispness to the air. Below these, adding to the tropical aromas, lie giant tree ferns, wild ginger, hisbiscus, begonias, balsams and aram Wies.

The giant lobedas and groundsels shade the pink and green giant earthworms, some of which can reach 45 em 18 in in length. The varied bird life, including he conspicuous regal, purple-breasted sunbirds, handsome francolins, olive pigeons and Rwenzori turacos creates a delicious cacophony from above.

Visitors can also view animals like chimpanzees, black and white colobus monkeys, blue monkeys, elephants, bushbuck, giant forest hogs, hyraxes and leopards. Youwill not regret taking a trip to this African paradise. Animals such as buffaloes, antelopes, Rothschild's giraffes and elephants Lurk by the rivers of the north-western savannas of the park, while the dense rainforests in the south-west host large groups of chimpanzees, vervet monkeys and olive baboons as well as redtailed and patas monkeys.

Th Buligi ireuit, the peninsula b tw n the Victoria and AJb rt. Niles, is stunningly beautiful and contains th highest concentration of wilcllife including the tiny malachite kingfisher, carmine bee-eater, African fisheagle, saddlebill stork and the wahlheaded, or shoebill, Stork.

Take an afternoon and trek through the grassland, woodland and papyrus swamps, catching glimpses of the buffaloes,with their sentinel cattle egrets, grazing among Borassus palms north of th Victoria Nile. Undoubtedly the highlight of th park is the roaring Murchison Falls, bes enjoyed by boat. Here the Nil fails vertically 40 m It through a 7-m ft gap crashing into the river below. If you perfer, the falls can be enjoyed from a path leading from above the faDs to where th water crash s blow.

Below the southern bank of th falls, thousands of bats can be seen roosting on the aptly named 'Ba eMs', swarming like large ravens a feeding time in the late.

Uganda kobs and Jackson's hartebeests. Take a flight allow these magnificent thundering waterfalls tn a biplane or hIllicopter, or whitewater raft them if you dare! Described by the Kololo tribe living in the area in th as 'Mosioa- Tunya' - 'the Smoke that Thunders' or 'the greatest known curtain of falling water', the vast columns of spray emanating from the majestic Victoria FalJs cal, be seen from over 64 km 40 mi away as they plummet over a vertical drop of rn ft into a deep gorge below.

In the height of the rainy season, over million m" 2. Dr David Lhringstone, th. Facing the falls, a twin sheer waD of basalt, about the same height is capped by mist-soaked rainforest that has a path along its edge providing unparalleled views to the brave visitor who Is not afraid to get soaked to the bone by the tremendous smoke-like cloud of spray.

Another vantage point for viewing the Eastern Cataract, Main Falls and the Boiling Pot, where the river turns and heads down the Batoka Gorge, is a ross th Knif -Edge ommission d by Cecil Rhodes in 19 a and Lh Lookout Tree also command panoramic views across the Main Falls and down th gorge, allowing you to get a true appreciation of the scope of lhe falls' thundering magnificence.

To appreciate fully the incredlbl size of th falls, and the awesome power of the water as il iarv s tnto the d p gorges for km 5 mi , on must see it from the air, or if you dare, from a whitewater raft. Pilots fly along the upper Zambezi and down into the gorge - making for an exhilarating and unforgettable experience.

Offeting high concentrations and varieties of wildlife th Luangwa ational Park is framed by th ,fUChiJ1g3 Mountain range where the Valle floor lies 1, m 3, ft beneath the surrounding plateau, bisected by th Luangwa River.

The Luangwa River is fed by sandy rivers calving through the valley Iloor, lh ir outer edges eroding when flood waters rise. Th r stilting silt deposits sv ntuaU cause the river to chang OW's forming 'ox bow' lagoons, an important ecological reaur of this area of Zambia. Flanking Ute river's w stern banks ar th orth and South Luangwa ational Parks, s parat by th 3D-kIn mi Munyamadzi corridor, To the east, b tween th two main parks, is another small and as yet undev I ped park called Luarnbe, Farth r east, on the rocky uplands beyond the flood plain, the Lukusuzi National Park is soon to be developed.

The Luangwa National Parks encompass th scenery that Alrica is famous for. Th ir rugged beauty is made up of grass plains and woodlands dott d with thorn tr 5, with the th vegetation growing more densely the clos r it gets to the liver banks, B cause of th vast number of streams and tributari 5, the many-hued green forest b kens animals year round. Gam watching her is imp " ssiv with animals like th rare black rhino, buffaloes, Hans, I opards, spotted hyenas, roan antelop s and hartebeest, There is also a rich variety of birds.

The area has suffered from poaching and hunting with subs qu nt bans and 1 he numbers of hippos and rhinos have been dim. Today there is a swell in the population of hippos along the Luangwa Riv r, which is great as a tourist spectacle, but hard on the nvirorunent.

Only 4X4 vehicles are recommended for travelling throIIghout the park. Portuguese traders were the first to encounter the vast stone ruins of Great Zimbabwe in the sixteenth century.

B cause of the scope and beauty of the ruins, th y thought they had dis ov 'ed the fabled capital of the Queen of Sheba. This was just the beginning of the myths, legends and folk lore to surround these massive structures, the largest in sub-Saharan Africa..

Because of their sophistication, their origin was at first thought to be the work of Egyptians Phoenicians. Eventually it was confirmed that, they wer created by Africans, proving that ancien African civilisations wer much mor advanced than previously thought by scholars. The ruins, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, are an architectural marvel covering nearly ha 1, acres , in an area stretching from eastern Zimbabwe into Botswana, across Mozambique and into South Africa, At its height, the capital of this wealthy Shena society was an important trading and religious c ntr , with upwards of 15, resident.

The complex can be divided into three distinct architectural groupings known as the Hill Complex, the Valley Complex and he Great Enclosure. The most impressive identified structure is the immense, elliptical Great. Enclosure, which is thought to have been the l"Oyal compound. At nearly m It across and ill ft wide, it creates a vivid image of what this city may have looked like in its prime. The walls lise 11 m 36 ft in h ight and are 5 m 16 It thick.

The 10 m 33 ft solid onical lbwer, also of note, was probably significant in religious ceremonies and may have had phallic symbolism. Matobo National park The Matobo Hills, in Matobo rational Park are one of the world's mos mythical places, their history dating back nearly fOUI million years to when man first walked upright. The area, once flat and covered in sand and rock, has been formed into giant granite boulders in distinct shapes over time from the wind and rain.

The granite outcrops have been associated with human occupation since the middl Stone Age, providing natural shelter against the elements for th hunters and gatherers the area. The granite b ulders are home to hidd n caves, sacred sites and on of th highes concentration of rock ar in Africa The rock art is notable no only for its diversity, but also for its animation.

Th drawings depict men running, playing, hunting and dancing. Mammals are shown anatomically correctly and trees, birds, insects and reptiles are also accurately rendered, allowing ancient species t.

Mzilikazj, rounder of the Ndebe. Cecil Rhodes is also buried h reo His remains are located in a massive, dominating granite formation called World's View: In his will, Rhodes made the Matobo ationa! Park a gift to til people of Bulawayo and his grave has become a place of pilgrimage for thousands since his death. There are 39 species of snakes flourishing in the hills here, the most well-known and feared being deadly black mamba. Fortunately, th high cliffs and craggy outcrops are a favourite haunt Ior the world's largest concentration of black eagles and other natural snake predators including Wahlberg's eagles, tawny eagles, s retary birds, snake eagles and peregrine falcons.

The wooded valleys and grassy marshlands surrounding the hills are also home to many species of wildlife including white rhinos, rare black rhinos, antelopes, baboons, monkeys, impalas, zebras and a large population of leopards. Wtth its quiet, tranquil air, spiritual and anthropological history and rna] sue scenery and wildlif , it is difficult not to I" el at peace in the Malabo Hills.

That is, if you can stop thinking about. A1SQ, there are 39 species of snakes here, most notably. In the north. Algeria nestled between Morocco and Tunisia, is the second largest country in Africa The northern portion, an area of mountains, valleys and plateaux between the Mediterranean Sea and the Sahara Desert, forms an integral part of the section of North Africa known as the Maghrib.

Contrary to popular belief, the majority of the Sahara is not sof. In reality, it's a vast expanse of rocks roughly the size of the United States. There is however, an area where the ahara turns into an endless sea of sand dunes tha. The Grand Erg Occidental is the second largest of the two dominating ergs of Algeria. The harsh conditions are such that no human life can be sustained here, so no villages are round within it, and no roads cross through it.

The endless dunes are experienced from the outside. You do not have to travel far into the erg before you experience the feeling of solitude and inferiority in this vast and majestic space.

EI Golea EI. Galea is a beautiful, lush oasis own in central Algeria and the gateway to the Sahara in the south. The city of Ghardaia was founded in the 10th century when Berbertribes settled here and well-preserved ruins of their fortifIcations can still be found on the hills surrounding the oasis.

Hightights of the city include the tomb of Marabont Moway Hass, a gentleman who made three pilgrimages to Mecca - a triple hadj. A local custom in his honour is to drive around the tomb three times. Also interesting to see is th series of rock carvings in the Atlas aharien created more than 5, years ago.

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Images include cape buffalo s, lephants, hippos, giraffes and other animals long since extinct in northern Africa. AbouL2km 1. Charles de Foucauld, a priest who wanted to bring Christianity to this part of Africa, is buried her. Much of its wild landscape is characterised by d ep chasms and dramatic cliffs. Composed largely of sandstone, erosion in the area has resulted in nearly natural rock arches being formed, along with many other spectacular landforms.

Because of the altitude and the water-holding properties of the sandstone, the vegetation is somewhat richer than the surrounding desert; it includes a very scattered woodland of the endangered endemic Saharan cypress and Saharan myrtle in the higher eastern half of the range. The range is also noted for its prehistoric rock paintings and other ancient archaeological si es, dating from the last Ice Age when the local climate was much wetter, with savannah rather than desert.

The rock paintings, which are up to 8, years old, can be found in the central area of 'Tassili N'Alier and depic a life in the region very different from today's Sahara. This area can only be entered if you have an official guide with you, or you are travelling with an accredited tour group - most of which leave from Djanet. AbotIt 1,, 'kill mil south of the capital, Algiers and just west of Fllghts are available from Illizi to AlgiI!

Djemila Djemila is the modem name of ancient Cuicul and home to some of the greates Roman ruins in Northern Mrica. Although the site itself is no one of the largest, the area is well preserved and the adjoining museum is filled 'with excellent mosaics. Djemila was a military garrison founded ill the first century AD to exploit and control the surrounding rich agricultural areas. TIl city has two forums and a theatre with a capacity of 3, just outside the city waJJs.

A baptistry and a basilica were added to Cuicul in the fourth century. Excavations began in early Th entrance to th site passes through the museum which is bursting at the seams with its treasures.

Its thre rooms are loaded with mosaics, marble statu s, oil lamps and traditional cookware. Europe House, named after its mostIamous mosaic, is the best known area of the ruins. The baptistery is ornamented by its original mosaics and the dome has been restor d to its original glory. The Great Baths are in exc ptionally good condition, and the pipes and double panels, wher hot water once circulated, are visible in many places. Behind the Great Baths is the door leading to what was once the Christian quarter.

The cfimate Is less extreme than most other areas of the 5allara. The Ahaggar massif is the home of the lmuhagh or Kel Ahaggar, a subdivision of the Tuareg people. The Tuareg, one of th most mythical peoples of Africa, are famous for their blue garments and for M,ving veiled men in contrast to the women, who enjoy a great deal of freedom. The Tuareg count their family by matrilinear descent. The rest of the population are mainly descendants of slaves from other parts of Africa, as well as a good number of northern Algerians.

The Haggar Mountains, one of the true highlights f the ahara, are too enormous and too scarcely populated for easy exploration but I is worth the effort. If you have three days to explore the ar a, you can enjoy the journey known as th Haggar Circuit. The first village of importance you will reach, after passing the Ermitage de Pere FoucauJd, is 8irafok, before Tazrouk, Thhifet, beyond the pass of Azrou, is a beautiful village set by 1 wide oued liver. At Trunekrest, there are waterfalls even more impressive than those at Cascades de ImeJeoulaouene.

In the oasis of Abalassa, near the town of Tarnanghasset, lies the tomb of TIn Hinan, th famous marnach believed to be the ancestor of the 'Iuareg of Ahaggar. Today, U1 Ahaggar region is one of the prime tourist d tinations i. It lies a the. OIt among TN altlly Europeans enti ed by the setting and the rumours that the dry h at provided a cure for various ailments. B cause of the influx of for igners, a Nile-side orruehe was created, providing moorings for the many steamers.

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At Lhe southern end of th Cornich is th Id ataract Hotel famous as one of th location f r the film Deun. Built in on a r cky outcrop in th river its grand pink exterior and Moonsh dining halls are a reminder of times past, Its large terrace has b n enjoyed by such luminaries as Winston hurchill, Jimmy Carter and the late Princess of Wales. Sharia el-Souq, a short way inland, is a bustling au door market lull of vivid colours and the aromas of exotic spices.

Traditional food, Nubian jewellery and textiles as well as the usual tourist souvenirs should not, be missed. Aswan is the location of the only granite quany In Egypt. THE E. Kings at Luxor The Valley of the Kings lies in an unassuming, sun-scorch d des rt valley surrounded by steep rock'Y hills on the west bank of'1'hebes, the political and religious capital of the New Kingdom. The last king known 1: A total of 62 tombs has been discovered to date, although not all of them belong 1.

Ace ssed through a sing! Each of these located deep within the ground, was designed to resemble the underworld with an descending corridor leading to an antechamber, or hall, and connected to a burial chamber.

Mesmerising Iloor-to-ceillng Images inspired by the Book qf the Dead, the amduat and the Litany oj Re, decorate the chambers to offer a guide to the afterlife. Lavish jewels, papyrus scrolls, furniture, ritual objects, statues of various gods and effigies of the king filled the spaces as offerings to the gods. The most famous tomb in the alley is that of 'Iutankhamun, discovered nearly intact in by British archaeologist, Howard Carter.

This was a particularly noteworthy discovery as almost all of th other tombs in the valley had already been looted long ago. King Tut's Tomb, lust one of 62 in the valley ohhl!

Tombs open at sam so go early to beat the crowds. If you're irMted to a local's home take an expensive gift since they're sure to roll out the red carpet. Its enormous statur and ominous presence dwarfs anything els you will eJ1COunL r in E,[,yPt,and most probably the rest of the world. Th dizzying size and breadth of th I gendary Great Hypostyle Hall is difficult to comprehend. It comprises massive columns, measuring from 15 m 50 Ft up to an awe-inspiring 21 m 69 Ft in height.

The columns are so wide, il takes six adults to reach around one, and it is estimated that at least 50 adults could comfortably stand on top of one. At one point th hall was covered, allowing minlmal light among th s dense columns - b tween ach of which would hay b en large statues I th pharaohs - creating an incredibly imposing sight. Th mail plac fworship lor th Th ban holy trinity Arrum-Re, and TSU , the residenc of the pharoahs, the c ntr of administration and the comerston of the economy employing tens of thousands of workers, the compound of Karnak served as the hub of the area, although only priests and the royal retinue were allowed to MUL.

The pyramids of Giza. Created within almos pinpoint accuracy, U e three structures Khufu, the oldes and largest- Khafr ,which seems taller because it is buil on higher ground; and Menkaura, with a base area of less than a quarter of the others - inspire questions about their greater meaning. The base, with each of its sides measuring m ft , is level to within 1 in 2,6 ern , and the difference in length between each of the four sides is a mere 2 in 5.

At first sight, the pyramids, not unlike the Mona Lisa at the Louvre, can be disappointing. After so many photographs of thes hulking structures surrounded by nothing but desert, it is a bit disconc rti: Still, the enchanting half lion representing royalty , half human with a traditional headdress symbolising power figure casts an impressive image, particularly with the shadow of the Great Pyramid of Khufu looming in lha near distance.

Carved from a single outcrop of bedrock, it is the earliest example of colossal Egyptian sculpture, Stone from the roonuments has been used to erect many of Cairo's oldest buildings. This destruction continued until the late 19th century wh n conservation efforts and a resurgence in national prtde put a stop to it. Had they no been vandalised, it is believed that the pyramids would remain tOOay much as they were when they were built. Commandments, eontinu s to be one of the major piJgrimage i s in the world, Whether you believe in the mountains history or not,at a height of.

Ask any of th hordes of visitors that make the Lr k daily!

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Th Camel Path - named after the Bedouin who wai here with their camels in case of an opportunity to help w ary travellers - is slightly easier on the knees and takes on averag three hours to reach th summil. Th Gamel Path joins up with tile last Steps of Repentance at Elijah's Basin, a hollow in tile mountainsid marked by a year-old cypress tree where God Is said to have spoken to Elijah as he hid from Jezebel. This Is the spot where you're asked to sleep if you decide to spend the night here. On the actual summit is the Chapel of the Holy Trinity, a Greek Orthodox church built In on the ruins of a fourth century church.

The chapel once held beautiful paintings and ornaments, but usually remains locked now because of desecration by tourists. Mount Sinai can be reached by various routes - the most direct and chall nging one is via the 3, Steps of R peruance,. The rocks take on tints of blue, pink and orange as the sun sets, and at night th sands resernbl snow. Apart from ttl heat, it could easily be mistaken for an Arctic landscape.

Th formations, compos d of a combination of chalk and lirneston wet created by wind erosion. They consist of various organic shapes, sometimes defying the laws of nature and graviLy, with enormous rocks perched precariously on particularly thin bases.

Th area is referred to by Bedouin as 'Wadi Gazar or Valley of the Carrots, after the shape or some of the pinnacles Iound here. It has also been said that the rocks resemble white sphinxes, stone camels or mythological birds. Also worth exploring are the springs found in the surrounding area. Unlike the res of the desert which lies in the km 75 mi Farafra Depression, the springs are marked by hillocks created when sand attaches itself to vegetation near water, The plants continu to grow despite their truggle against being suffocated by sand and v ntuaUy form hills that are often quite dramatic.

Siwa OaSis Siwa is the most remote of all Egypt's oasis lying some Famous for its oracle ilia was once consulted by Alexander tile Great, Siwa remains largely unspoilt and has retained mu h of its cultural heritage, despite its new status as a major tourist destination. Alcohol is not drunk here and women remain nearly Sully covered in their traditional milayah wraps.

Siwi, a Berber language, is. Siwans have also r tained their traditional tribal governing body consisting of 11 chiefs, the sheikhs, who act as local council. A newly paved asphalt road leading to Marsa Matruh, however continues 1: However, visitors can still enjoy the dreamlike setting of dense green dat palms, an abundance of olive tr e , and more than Ireshwat r springs and streams. The town of Siwa is buil around Shall, th thirteenth- entury mudbrick settlement, surrounded by high walls creat d to protect against attack.

As Siwan society nourished, rather than building outsid the wall they decided to build upwards within it - their structures sometimes reaching five storeys. In 1 26, a series of violent rain storms caused the buildings to disintegrate, creating a Dali-esque appearance. These surreal buildings are fun to explore and afford em excellent view of th oasis and distant desert bluffs.

Also within the oasis is a small market offering the highly valued and rare embroidered clothing and heavy silver jewellery local to the area. Siwa is also known for its basketware woven from dat palm fronds, as well as its highly cov ted pottery. DvemJ1d from cairo on a tour through a travel agent or by rental car - meek for special,!

Busses and taxis are also avallable. E The ruins from one of seven small provincial pyramids built along tile.

Th Temple of Edfu remains the best pres rved ancient t rnple in Egypt, as well as the second largest temple aft r Karnak, It was built during the reigns of six Ptolemies in dedication to Horus, the falcon-headed god, with construction beginning in BC and ending in 57 BC. The temple was believed to be bull on the historic site of the great battle between Horus and Seth, so the current templ is only the last of many erected.

Legend has it that the original stru ture, home to a statue of Horus, was a prehistoric grass hut. Th current ruins ar built of sandstone, on top of a smaller Nelv Kingdom temple Pylon. This masterpiece was found completely submerged underneath the desert sands, except the top of the entrance pylon.

A small amount of stone had been removed from the exposed part but upon excavation it was found to be in otherwise perfec ' condition. On the undersurface of the main archway into the temple are six sets of winged images, each varying slightly from one another. Farther inside the entrance to the. The main building, including th great Hypostyle Hall, is impressive for both its size and its condition. Each night, the god and goddess would retire ohe mamissi, or birthing house.

An entrance colonnade to thls rnamissi still exists, and reliefs portraying the birth ritual of Harsomtus, the son of Horus and Hathor remain just outside the main temple. Beyond the Hypostyle Hall is a second, smaller hall leading to a well called the Chamber of the Nile, where the priests obtained pure holy water. Beyond the second, smaller Efypostyle Ball lies the offering hall, followed by the vestibule and finally the sanctuary.

The granite naos is the oldest relic in the temple. Historians and archeologists surmise tha a golden gilded wooden statue of Horus aboul60 cm This statue would have been washed dressed, anointed, Jed and entertained by the priests.

The sanctuary is surrounded by chapels, chambers, tombs and rooms, some of which were dedicated to the god Osiris, or Mehit, the lioness who guards the soul's path on its journey towards etemallife.

Allhe begJnning of the beau! It had an abundance of precious metals, from which it produced its coinage, featuring th m Jcinal herb for which it was known, silphium. The port of Apollonia, I6bn 10 rni from Cyrene, was on an important trading rout-e. It is now an important archeological site near the village of Shaha. More than 16 Roman statues dating back to the 2nd century AD were found here in According to architects, so many of the statues remained undiscovered for such a loz1gperiod because a supporting wall of the temple fell on its side during an earthquake in ,.

The statues remained hidden under stone, rubble and earth for 1, years, protected from the elements. One of Cyrene's more significant features is the Temple of Apollo, originally constructed in ell seventh century Be, and rebuilt three centuries later. The Great Baths of til Tempi of Apollo are in exceptional condition, with their pipes still visible.

Inside, one can still se til seats of the treatment rooms. At the extreme north-west is the Roman theatre, which stands on Greek Ioundations and is partly Greek in style.

The theatre's setting is snmrung, with hills behind the stage falling down to the landscape stretching out to the sea. Other ancient ruins include a Temple of Dem ter and a partially unexcavated Temple of Zeus. There is a large necropolis part In the centre of Cyrene, in th Agora, or town squar , is the Tomb of Battus, as well as the Forum of Proculus, which remains in relatively good condition, Cyrene was originally a colony of the Greek people of Thera, modern-day Santorini, established in Be by Aristotle later called Battus.

In a strategic location between 8gypt and Carthage, tile: The ruins, which are only partly excav-ated, ar in incredible condition, the Hoor mosaics still clearLy visible and the foundation structures largely intact.

T11 earthquak of destroyed the majority of the city, and its ruins wer lef decay.

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If you're lucky you may be able to find your own undi cov red tr asur! Originally founded by the Phoenicians in the tenth century Be as a trading p rt it surviv d olonisation by partans, became a Punic ity, and was eventually established as part of the new Roman provinc of Africa around 23 B 1'h spectacular city of Leptis Magna was built in traditional Roman architectural styles and was a hub [or trade, culture and the arts.

Serving as the Mediterranean outlet of a trade route through the Sahara into th interior of Africa, its economy was bas d on agriculture, and som of its products, particularly olives, b cam profitable trade items.

Oliv cultivation added so much to the town's prosp Iity, in fa 'L, that Julius Caesar imposed an annual tax of three million pounds of oil on the city in 46 BC! The prosperous Roman city was sacked by Berbers in AD and subsequently abandoned.

Various materials from the site have been recycled by pillagers throughout history, but during a series of excavations in the , the magnificent ruins, one of the best preserved Roman cities in the world, were uncovered.

Archeologists have unearthed several layers of ruins including til remains of a large theatre built in the first century AD, beneath which is a cern oozy pro ably dating from the fourth or third century B. Despite the condition and range of the incredilily well-preserved ruins and its status as a. World Heritage Site, Leptis Magna remains largely ignored, apart [rom some recent interest from a team of British.

Thankfully, the arid desert climate has preserved the ruins of Leptis Magna, v hich were covered in sand for at least half a century, Thes amazing structures provid an incr dible insight into th life and times of the early Romans in Africa and are well worth a visit of at leas a f w days. FeS - Fez el Bali Pes is the 'symbolic heart' of Morocco - its intellectual, historical and spiritual capital.

As you wander through its labyrinthine shady streets, exotic smells of mint and spices waft through the air, dappled light falls on the whitewashed, crumbling grandeur of the old city and you can feel the tangible mystery and intrigue of this, the oldest of the four imperial cities. Unlike many walled cities, Old Fes hasn't burst its banks, and its gates and walls remain intact.

The population has expanded out of the city, flowing towards the south-west and arching towards the hillsides that stretch north and south of the new city.

The towering Medersa Bou mania, a theological college built in , dominates the old city in the Fez River's fertile basin. The medina of Fes el-Bali Old Pes is one of the largest living and working medieval citi s in the world. Consisting of the 'traditional seven elements', mosques, medersas Koranic schools , souks markets , fondouks lodging' and trading houses , fountains, a hammam steam bath and a bakery, it jsa bustling combination of city, museum and workshop that has changed very little with the passing ot ttme.

The s reets are. You can s e baoy-sof leathers being tanned, the sun glinting off copper pots as they are being soldered, brass plates being engraved colourful ceramics and embroidery, cedar, woodwork and carpets being hawked in hoarse voices that echo in the many courtyards.

One of the experiences that cannot be missed is a stop into a Morrocan carpet shop. There you will be plied with mint tea and shown hundreds of stunning, intJicately woven rugs selling for a traction of the price that you would pay in a department store for one of inferior quality.

Some visitors may feel intimidated, but. Harira, a hearty IJean.

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March to June and September to oecember for the central plateau. Tangier As you arrive in Tangier, sailing on th turquoise Mediterranean you will see a vast, rustic yet developed coastline outlined by the Rif Mountains. As you disembark, you may be surrounded by swarms of touts t1ying to get you to stay at one resort or another.

This can be disarming, as sometimes they are pushy, but they are harmless so jus tell them no thank you and tak it all in - it is all part of the chaJof this traditional, international, diverse, colourful land, Man visitors come to 'rangier because of its easily accessibl location - [rom Spanish day-tripp rs to those seeking sunshin lovely beaches in modem resorts and thos wanting to xperienee a pi e of historv Tangi r is a melting pot with something for veryone, It has led a varied cultural xistenc through th years and the city bears witness to Ph necian, Roman, Portugese, British and French influences.

As you wander through the busy streets you are likely to rub should 1'5 with rural Rift Berbers in their traditional striped rnehndis bright woven blankets expats, tourists diplomats, princes, poets and artists, forocco has always b n a land of free spirits and Tangier is no exception. Wand r thr ugh the crumbling walls of th Kasbah g tting 10 in the myriad streets of the medina, whil taking in he exotic scents of innamon and tobacco lloat.

Stop in a local off hop and enjoy a cup of the traditional min tea. When you want a br ak [rom til crowds, head 4. Visit he Caves of Hercules, known for their window-like opening in the shape of Africa where surf crashes through th hoi tnt th tagoon and caves. There is a small cafe where you can enjoy th views ami eat a traditional tagin ,watching the local fishermen haul in their n ts after a rough clay a sea.

With the smell of salt in yaur nostrils, the sound of the crashing surf in your ears and the SUJl on your face you are nearly guaranteed a feeling of peace in your soul.

Quemado beach around AI Hooeilml. Marrakesh is the lively FOlmer capital of Morocco, famed Ior its markets and festivals, hippies and criminals, devout and destitute, debauched ann intellectual - it is a study In dichotomies.

Surrounded by 9. As you wander down the crowded, mazelike, olourful broad avenues you will pass crumbling architectural treasures, donkeys and mules carrying produce, wood and weaving workshops, steam-billowing hammams, ancient mosques and shiny modem hotels.

The pulsating energy centre of Marrakesh is the Ojemaa el-Fna, Follow the enticing aromas and deafening noise into the calamitous atmosphere of this enormous market in the mids of the medina. Part mystic zoo, part anlrnalisticcarnival, part Olympic village - this market has to be seen to be believed.

Housed in an enormous rectangular' space, snake charmers, acrobats, monkey tamers, henna artists and veiled ladies selling bracelets or begging for money with outstretched hands, ev ryone vies for your attention. Jugglers and storytellers jostle for position with magicians, dancing transvestites playing cymbals, fire-eaters and fortune tell rs, Boxers, astrologers and men with scorpions crawling on their faces all contribute to the melee.

At one end of the market, where the gates lead into the souk, you can sit on a balcony or roof terrace to watch the madness unfold beneath you as you sip on a cup of tea and munch tagine, The tourists generally rake advantage of this respite, while the locals pre! Stay for sunset when the surrounding buildings turn orange, blue and pink, after which the hundred of gas lamps are lit, creating haunting shadows. The carruval-ttke atmosphere continues and grows in ferocity through the wee hours and begins again at dawn.

Tafraoute Tafraou is a onglornerarion of ochre-covered buildings set amid gl n trees, offering a spectacular. During 1. This event is ideaJ if you want to escape the popular modem beach holiday area for something a JittJe diff rent.

While visiting Tafraoute, there are three attractions that should be on any traveller's Usl- the Les Pierres Bleues - Jean Verans famous Blu Rock, the palm groves south-east of Tafraoute and the gazelle rock carving, Over a p nod of thre months in 19 ,th Belgian artist and a team of torroccan fir m n collaborated in the creation of on of th m t unusual art installation pi C OIL earth.

They covered the small hills and granite boulders of th Anti-Atlas Mountains with 1 tonnes of blue red violet and white paint.

Although now somewhat faded, the fusion of art and natur is still mesmerising and the contrast of bright blue against the brilliant reds of th des r is unforgettable. Also worth a full day's trip ru the palm groves. Past 'Napoleon's Cap' ,'liteh its massive boulders on your right, there is a winding paved trail that leads you through the Anti-Atlas mountains where you can enjoy scenic views of the Arnrneln Valley from Ait Mansour, to Afellan-Ighir and back to Tafraoute.

Just 2 km 1. Tlafraoute Is known for its prehistoric rock. The pal m Groves south-east of the city take at least a full day to see property. The charming, sleepy coastal town of Sidi Ifni, the last Spanish colonial outpost in Morocco, offers impressive M D co architectur and a hospitable Spanish atmosphere to its guests.

Its clill-top location with Andalusian-style gardens and tiled fountains are a testament to its Spanish roots - they left only to J The buildings are painted in whimsical Easter- gg pastels - in contrast to the surrounding French-influenc d towns with their rich palette of dark hues - which lend a peaceful and relaxed air.

In the main square, Place Hassan n, yOll can wander among som modest private homes, the now defunct Spanish Consulate, the law courts which were once a church, the town hall, the royal pala e and the Ho el Bellevue which overlooks th bach and [he p rt.

Then is a Sunday souk, h Id at abandoned airstrip near town filled witb storytellers and musicians. The beaches are pleasant, with camels wandering through the misty sea air, and quieter than the more stablish d, but sometimes overrun areas around Agadir,. Chefchaouen A short, drive from Tangier nestled in the Rif mountain region, the picturesque medieval town of Chefchaouen was settled at the nd of Ute fifteenth century as a mountain retreat for the Moors and Jews who had been expelled from pain by the Catholic Monarchs.

I striking medina is one of the most charming in Morocco, with signature blue-wash d gabl d houses and artisans on narrow streets selling traditional WID'es,including caftans and embroidered jeUabahs, carpets, leather goods, pottery and copper. The Plaz.. There is also a cluster of I gant buildings including the rnedersa Koranic school and the old castl with its palm and cypress.

It is said that until only three Christians had ever found their way into the town, and that slaves w 'e openly trad d in its mark t until The surrounding area is particularly cenlc with abundant natural springs, low-lying clouds and wildflower-strewn meadows dense with. Th growth of and trade in marijuana has become such an intrinsic parr of the tOWIl - it is sold in the open markets alongside the l1'tlditional vegetables, herbs and spices - that after a while you do not even notice the oddity.

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Unlike any other city in Morocco, Chefchaoen consistently ranks as a favourite among travell rs from across the globe. Ci1efchaouen is one of tl11l largest producers of marijuana in Morocco. A meal at tl11l famous year old family-runHOtel-Restal. Wander around the rnarkelS enjoying the slgj1ts ano smells of the relaxed town.. The area Is knoWll Ibr its oliVe An ideal base for the exploration of the Souss Valley and western High Atlas, Taroudant is known for its bustling market and fresh produce.

A mixture of Arabic and Tashelhit Serb r languages can be heard as you stroll through the town's recently restor d salmon-coloured walls. As you head towards the market you'll weave through crowds of men on bicycles with fresh bundles of coriander in their baskets. The enticing smells of lavender, thyme, saffron and mint waft through the hazy sunshine, as you stop to admire the Grand Mosque with its yellow rnlnaret and teal-green houndstooth tiling.

On a clear day, the snowy peaks of the Djebel Toubkal can be s en hovering in the distance past the gates of the Kasbah, Th native women, th Roudani, can be seen in the early evenings chatting in lines around the ramparts: They look, and often sound, like an exotic species of bird as they wander around gossiping and laughing. Stop at one or the many reasonably priced cafes and enjoy a snack as you watch daily life unfold, take a csleche, a horse-drawn carriage , around the city d watch the fading light of sunset highlight the olive trees surrounding the town.

The red pise straw and mud towers in this village fortress are said to resemble a melting sand castle. The surrounding almond trees lend a sumptuous air to the village, which has b autifuJ vi ws over th liver vall y. Among the dramatic terrain of the snowy Atlas mountains reaching to the Sahara desert is a varied landscape en ompassing large cany ns, gorges and lunar steppes making the provtnc oI Ouarzazat a preferr d choice for filnunakers, and the Hollywood of Morocco.

Films such as Soddam. Alt-Ben-Haddou is notable for its kasbah, the Kasbah Taourirt, which is said to be the best preserved in the country. As you wander along til dusty streets, crowded with small cafes and tourist shops, the friendly vendors, who are much less aggressive than at other tourist pots, will 'ome outsid to greet you and ngage you in onversaiion. The villag is known for its fine crafts including its traditional carpets and cerami s. Have dinner at Chez Dimitri.

Lixus Perched on a hilltop overlooking the sea, surrounded by hills and forests, with views of the serpentine waters orthe Wadi Loukkos River and down to the ocean, Lisus is a wondeTfully scenic site with some impressi e ruins of a Roman imperial outpost. Settled by the Phoenicians in the seventh century B and later an important Carthaginian site, Lixus remains a most impressive ruin, for its relics as well as its stunning location.

Largely unexplored and unexcavated, Lixus has the ruins of an ampitheatre dating back to the first century AD, which would have held a few hundr d people.

Behind ie are the baths, with spectacular mosaics that remain largely intact, except for some damage caused by locaJ children pJaying in lh unguarded area Unfortunately, one of the victims was the face of the sea god, eptune, in the centre of one of the largest and most impressive mosaic panels.

Also here is the Christian basilica, located right in the centre of Lixus. Although not as architecturally striking as some of the other buildings, it is still in good condition considering age and is worth a look, particularly from its unadorned roof, offering sweeping views of the vaDeys below. Largely u. Nor1h or! The city remained inhabited until the eighteenth c ntury when it was larg Iy d rnolished to provid building materials for the palaces of Moulay Ismail in nearby Meknes.

Although much of the Roman architecture, largely dating back to AD, was lost, there are still some well-preserved columns, a basilica, a triumphal arch and a. Facing proudly outwards towards the main ntry route to the city, it was restored in The Capitol, located on 11 headland towering over the arid plain, fa es the basilica.

Nearby is also the hous of Ephebe, providing shelter for one of the remarkable mosaics, this one in particular depicting Bacchus on his chariot. Also be enjoyed is the mosaic showing th myth of Orpheus and Amphitrite's harlot located in the hom of a rich merchant. It is truly a pleasur La witness such beautifully well pres rved artwork, whether or not you're an art history buff.

Rni'llS oj the RomanJoru11l. The Sudd Sudan is the largest country in the African continent occupying an impressive 2,, sq Jan 1,, sq mi. Covering much of central and north-east Africa, it consists of an enormous plain running from the northern Sudan to the gandan frontier and hum the Central African R public all the way to the Ethiopian highlands.

The Sudd the world's largest swamp provides an expanse of lakes, lagoons and aquatic plants, and its flood waters cover an area roughly as large as Belgium.

The dense aquatic vegetation making up The Sudd disperses the river into various channels. The Sudd has created such an obstacle that passage was no managed until Egyptians completed the fil'St navigation In The first effort to create a channel took over four years and constant maintenance is required to keep the channel clear.

Tunis The old Arab town of the medina, tile unofficial centre of Tunis, is easy to navigate and there is a lot to see - a perfect starting point for your journey through Tunisia.

Built in the seventh century AD, the medina lost its status as the heart of Tunis when the French buill. The lively, oval, walled ciLy of the medina is made up of covered a.! There are historical monuments [0 see including palaces, mosques, mausoleums, madrasas and fountains dating back to the Almohad and Hafsid periods. Be sure to stop into one of the many relaxed cafes where you'll have to navigate through.

The medlna is characterised by its quirkiness, withvarious architectural and decorative styles includ1ng Art Deco buildings. Even its semineglected state somehow seems to add to its charm, The ruins of Carthage, on the northern gulf shore lie in the suburb by the same name.

The original city, home to Hannibaland his elephants, was razed to the ground in About a century later Julius Caesar rebuilt it as a symbol of tile resurrection of Africa and it became the second city the Empire after Rome.

Following a period of decadence and prosperity, Arab invaders levelled the city once again in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Not much is known about the original appearance of Carthage, and excavations have proved difficult because of the utter demolition of the site and subsequent pillaging, but a UNESCO-inspired international dig has managed to uncover a smattering of ancient sites amid the beautiful countryside by the sea.

Spring and: The medina. The pretty cliff-top resort town of Sk! The sight of this monument rising in he distance surrounded by modest houses on the flat Sahel plain as you enter this small town is both wonderful and slighUy incongruous, its present surroundings lending no hint of its former glory. Buill around AD, it was th scene for often cruel and bloody gladiator circus 'games' modelled on those of ancient Rome. Today, the echoing cries of martyrs and large beasts have been replaced by classical Arabian music and haunting European concertos as the coliseum is now home to performances by the world-famous orchestras who come to play a,t its annual summer International FestivaloI Symphonic Music.

The craf of mosaic making has been rediscovered and El Djem has been reborn as a centre for the art. Examples of a spectacular selection of original mosaics can b seen at the impressive archeological museum, which, in conjunction with the looming structure of the coliseum, makes this sit worth a visit.

Dougga Dougga is an imposing site - some say the most dramatic in Tunisia, One the seat of power for the Numidian King, Massinissa, it wasa large and prosperous town and now stands as the best preserved Roman monument in Northern Africa. Ugh on th sid of a valley overlooking wheat fields. At one time more than 25, people lived here and the intact remains to be explored includ 12 Roman temples three of which wer transformed into churches in the fourth century , three baths, numerous cisterns and lountains, two heavily restored theatres, a nymphaeum, an aqueduct, a market, a circus, several necropolises and a handful ofmausolewns.

The site is so well pres rved that even the scars of chariot wheels on cobbl d streets continue to. The sheer number of buildings in such I' markabl condition allow on to imagin the thriving m tropohss grand infrastructure. Some of th highlights of this vast site that should not be missed include the remains of lh Libyco Carthaginian tower dating back to the second century "Be. This structure looms above the southern edge of the town at an impressive 21 rn 69 ft high.

Each tier is s parated by steps and decorative Ionic columns. The tower was once also ornam ented by a stel bearing til names of its build rs. Th apitol, with its impressive peristyl ,or olumn- nclosed court, is also no to be missed.

Built in AD, th Capitol consists of a 13 x m 43 x ft cella, or inner sanctuary, which housed an irnpressiv o-m The cella was approached via a monumental fiight of steps with a right-angle tum and. The ruins of Dougga are a fantastl representation of a larg Roman site, offering an interesting historical flashback for both th novi and the scholar. Jerba Island TIl island of Jerba, 1. The quaint interior of the island is divided into [arms by date and oliv groves. The whitewashed, Iorufied mosques, an anomaly in Tunisia, glow in the bright sunshine.

Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. Sort order.

Sep 11, Rachel rated it liked it Shelves: I always enjoy hearing other people's opinions on which places are 'must see'.

This guy left off some pretty big ones in my opinion! I also found it quite interesting that in many of the places in the Middle East that - if it was even safe enough to go - a Christian couldn't even see the sights because only Muslims are allowed inside. Can you imagine if the same thing was done in all of the cathedrals and synagoguges around the world? Aug 05, Laura rated it really liked it. Just another book that fires up my yen for travel. Jan 02, Carlo Cormier rated it it was amazing.

A must read for any traveller or adventurer. With precise details of magnificent destination and beautiful photographs. An eye-opener when it comes to the number and location of cities with greater than 1,, people in them. Jul 26, Vanessa Espirito Santo rated it it was amazing. Just makes me wanna pack my bags and leave!

Jun 22, Samantha rated it liked it. Travel to the most spectacular and enigmatic cities across the globe. The book provides the reader with a wealth of interesting and useful information about each city featured. Each entry is beautifully illustrated.

A wide range of cities are covered in this book, crossing continets, history and culture. This book is great if you want inspiration for where to travel to next, however this is not a guide book. It is broken down into contients and are colour coded at the top of each page. The book in Travel to the most spectacular and enigmatic cities across the globe. The book includes some lovely photographs from famous places and those not so familiar with.

There is on average one page per city so the detail has to be cut some what on larger cities with more tourist attractions. This gives you an insight into other areas of the country and could prehaps tempt you for a visit.

The way that the book is written to me isn't that inspiring and could come across dull at times. However what makes up for this is the quick facts based on each city, these are well worth a read. Dec 27, Timothy rated it it was amazing. Mar 01, Sryan Sean rated it it was amazing. I just love the ' must visit' series! With so many destinations covered in each book, they still manage to be informative with great pictures.

Sofia rated it liked it Feb 23, Ijasmine rated it it was amazing Jul 11, Trang rated it really liked it Mar 07, Dada rated it liked it Dec 26, Jeremy Weimer rated it it was amazing Jan 09, Fahad rated it it was amazing Mar 26, Rodders rated it liked it Aug 10, Erin rated it really liked it May 08, Katherine rated it really liked it Feb 16, Th summit is an impressivi 1, 0 m 5,9 6ft low r rising to over 2,m 6, 24ft tall.

This wilderness and the nearby game-rich Moremi Game Reserve and Chobe National Park appeal to game- and birdwatchers, hunters and sports nsherman, as well as those who simply like to explore hidden treasures in their loveliest and least spoilt state" During the growth of the Rift Valley, the Okavango River, the seventh largest river in Africa, was created.

A walk on the wall can provide a good basic orientation to newcomers and visitors of the town. Some visitors may feel intimidated, but. During 1. English is not even as good a common medium of exchange as Latin was then! Finally, he witnessed the appearance of 'noxious beasts and reptiles' that he had previouslY banished!

The Haggar Mountains, one of the true highlights f the ahara, are too enormous and too scarcely populated for easy exploration but I is worth the effort. Few words can accurately d scribe tile aw -inspiring vision of a se mlngly endless pink blanket of feathers laying at your feet.