HYMANS COMPARATIVE VERTEBRATE ANATOMY PDF

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H87 A laboratory manual (or comparative vert 3 DATE DUE I must therefore ask the indulgence of the expert in vertebrate anatomy for the. The purpose of this book, now in its third edition, is to introduce the morphology of vertebrates in a context that emphasizes a comparison of structire and of the. Hyman's Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy, , pages, Marvalee H. Wake, The Dissection of Vertebrates A Laboratory Manual, Gerardo De Iuliis.


Hymans Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Pdf

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Hyman, Libbie H. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, p. $ Greta Oppe · Search for more papers by this . Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File ( .txt) or read book online. Author: Henrietta Hyman. INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY: An In- troduction to. Animal. Morphology and. Bionomics. . Hyman, L. H. A Laboratory Manual for Comparative. Vertebrate.

These cells may serve as a stem cell population to replace damaged cells in the discs or they may secrete proteins that have the potential to induce cell division in damaged nuclei pulposi.

The molecular pathways responsible for the formation of the intervertebral discs has been postulated to be similar in all mammals, an assumption based on observations that the IVD structures in organisms such as humans, canines, rabbits, and pigs are similar Walmsley, ; Butler, ; Alini et al. In the mouse system it has been demonstrated that cells from the notochord contribute to the nucleus pulposus and that the notochord disappears during later embryonic development Walmsley, ; Choi et al.

The cellular origin of the annulus fibrosus is less clear. It has been proposed that the annulus fibrosus is derived from the sclerotome, the ventral portion of each of the somites Bagnall and Sanders, ; Goldstein and Kalcheim, ; Huang et al.

At embryonic day 12 in the mouse, sclerotome cells migrate toward the midline and condense around the notochord Christ and Wilting, These forming condensations have regions that are variable in cell density.

Rufai et al. The more compact condensations later give rise to the vertebral bodies, while those that are less dense have been observed to adopt fibroblast morphology. It is this region of the vertebral column upon which the lamellae of the annulus fibrosus form Christ and Wilting, ; Rufai et al. While much of the development of the vertebral column has been characterized in mouse models, intervertebral development in chickens has been less thoroughly studied.

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During primary gastrulation, paraxial mesoderm in the segmental plate epithelializes to form the first 28 pairs of somites Deries et al. Then, during the second day of chicken embryonic development somites undergo a craniocaudal polarization by which separate cranial and caudal compartments perform different developmental tasks; specifically, an epithelio-mesenchymal transition mediated by secreted signals from surrounding tissues gives rise to the sclerotome Deries et al.

The components of the axial skeleton, including the vertebral bodies, neural arches, spinous processes, proximal ribs, and intervertebral discs, are believed to be derived from distinct cell subpopulations within the sclerotome Brent and Tabin, ; Brent et al. Currently the literature provides conflicting reports as to which half-sclerotome gives rise to the disc based on studies of the fate of half-somites in chickens.

Bagnall and Sanders determined that the caudal half-somite contributes to the disc using peanut lectin staining Bagnall and Sanders, , as did Huang et al.

Hyman Chapter 1.docx - Hyman Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy...

However, Goldstein and Kalcheim reported that the rostral half-somite was responsible for disc formation Goldstein and Kalcheim, Using the lipophilic fluorescent probes DiI and DiA, we fate mapped distinct regions of each half-somite in chickens.

In mice, the anterior sclerotome was fate mapped using a TbxCre allele Cai et al. Based on our mouse and chick lineage analysis we propose that cells from the rostral half-sclerotome contribute to the caudal half of the vertebral body and the intervertebral disc, while the caudal half-sclerotome contributes to the rostral half of the adjacent vertebra.

In addition, our analysis revealed that the notochord persists throughout embryonic chicken development, resulting in an absence of nuclei pulposi within chicken intervertebral discs.

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Examination of additional species revealed that nuclei pulposi were only found in mammals. Results Chicken and quail intervertebral discs lack nuclei pulposi To determine if the chicken intervertebral disc was similar in structure to the mammalian disc, we examined chicken vertebral columns from Hamburger Hamilton HH stage 19 — 44 Hamburger and Hamilton, and adult animals using the stains picrosirius red and alcian blue.

These reagents stain collagen red and glycosaminoglycans blue, respectively. Our fate mapping data indicates that cells originating from the rostral half of each somite are responsible for forming the avian disc while cells in the caudal region of each somite form vertebrae.

A histological analysis of mammalian and non-mammalian organisms suggests that nuclei pulposi are only present in mammals. In humans, the intervertebral discs IVD often deteriorate and are believed to cause most cases of lower back pain. Current treatments for the deterioration of the discs include anti-inflammatory pain management and disc arthroplasty artificial disc replacement Mirza and Deyo, Though implants help to restore mobility, they are subject to failure through wearing Hanley et al.

The mammalian IVD functions to resist compressive loads placed on the vertebral column while also providing it with structural support and flexibility.

In mammals, the disc is composed of two distinct parts, the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus.

The central nucleus pulposus is a hydrogel-like structure made primarily of proteoglycans. The annulus fibrosus surrounds the nucleus pulposus and contains layers of collagen I fiber bundles arranged in alternating directions and a less organized layer of collagen II fibers Humzah and Soames, ; Smith et al. The breakdown of proteoglycans in the nucleus pulposus and tears in the annulus fibrosus can lead to disc deterioration.

In mice, the embryonic notochord is present from E7. Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated that the embryonic mouse notochord forms all cell types in the nucleus pulposus Choi et al.

The nucleus pulposus persists throughout adult life in both mice and in humans. Given the established role of the notochord as a signaling center during embryonic formation of the vertebral column, it is possible that notochord derived cells in the nucleus pulposus continue to regulate disc morphology into adulthood Hunter et al.

These cells may serve as a stem cell population to replace damaged cells in the discs or they may secrete proteins that have the potential to induce cell division in damaged nuclei pulposi. The molecular pathways responsible for the formation of the intervertebral discs has been postulated to be similar in all mammals, an assumption based on observations that the IVD structures in organisms such as humans, canines, rabbits, and pigs are similar Walmsley, ; Butler, ; Alini et al.

In the mouse system it has been demonstrated that cells from the notochord contribute to the nucleus pulposus and that the notochord disappears during later embryonic development Walmsley, ; Choi et al.

The cellular origin of the annulus fibrosus is less clear. It has been proposed that the annulus fibrosus is derived from the sclerotome, the ventral portion of each of the somites Bagnall and Sanders, ; Goldstein and Kalcheim, ; Huang et al.

At embryonic day 12 in the mouse, sclerotome cells migrate toward the midline and condense around the notochord Christ and Wilting, These forming condensations have regions that are variable in cell density. Rufai et al. The more compact condensations later give rise to the vertebral bodies, while those that are less dense have been observed to adopt fibroblast morphology.

It is this region of the vertebral column upon which the lamellae of the annulus fibrosus form Christ and Wilting, ; Rufai et al.In the invertebrates the central nervous system is always solid and lies mainly ventral in the body.

The intervertebral disc in mammals is composed of three parts: a jelly-like center called the nucleus pulposus, the cartilaginous annulus fibrosus and anterior and posterior endplates that attach the discs to vertebrae. View access options below. Proximalnear the main mass of the body, as the thigh. Because of their phylogenetic importance, the Hemichordata are treated in the next chapter but, for reasons there given, are regarded as an invertebrate phylum and hence removed from the Chordata.