Request PDF on ResearchGate | Lostology: Transmedia storytelling and Historias más allá de lo filmado: fan fiction y narrativa transmedia en series de televisión . Henry Jenkins and Carlos Scolari extend a similar argument to all sorts of. PDF | The present paper analyzes an innovative teaching experience, Scolari ( ) described transmedia narratives as not simply an adaptation of one form of media into. another Narrativas transmedia y contenidos generados por los usuarios: el caso de los .. Carlos A. Scolari · Manel Jimenez. Carlos A. Scolari. Lostology: Transmedia storytelling and expansion/compression strategies. Abstract: The objective of this article is to analyze.

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by Carlos A. Scolari The term “transmedia storytelling” was coined by the US researcher Narrativas transmediáticas, convergencia audiovisual y nuevas estrategias Scolari, C. A. PDF eBook here { }. .. Transmedia storytelling Narrative strategies, fictional worlds and branding in contemporary media production Carlos A. Scolari - University of Complexity of narrative and transmedia storytelling. Narrativas transmediáticas aplicadas a la educación. Con la colaboración de Rosa Ferrer Ceresola y Carlos Sanandrés Martínez. Noviembre de narrativa transmedia desde una leyenda urbana sobrenatural.

This article first discusses the elusive concept of transmedia storytelling and later presents analytical considerations outlining relevant aspects that can contribute to perceive the process of developing transmedia projects. The significance of these discussions is to address essential features of the design process behind transmedia projects and contribute to support the analytic needs of transmedia designers and the applied research in the interest of the media industry.

Alexander, C. Notes on the Synthesis of Form. Beer, S. Bernardo, N. London: CR Entertainment Ltd.

Narrativa transmèdia

Caddell, B. Core Principles of Transmedia Storytelling. Davidson, D. Pittsburgh: ETC Press. Dena, C. PhD Dissertation. Groth ed. Brisbane: Institute for the Future of the Book in Australia, Dinehart, S. Dubberly, H. Elliott, K. Ryan ed. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, Gambarato, R. Godest, O. The Puzzle of Transmedia Classifi cation Criteria. Grishakova, M. Ryan eds. Berlin, New York: De Gruyter, Hayes, G. How to Write a Transmedia Production Bible.

Sydney: Screen Australia. Herman, D. Iacobacci, N. Jenkins, H. Transmedia Storytelling. Five More on Friday. Seven Myths about Transmedia Storytelling Debunked. Kinder, M. Berkeley: University of California Press. Landow, G. Hypertext 2. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. These pedagogic auques—usually made up of 48 vignettes—included a short text to complement the visual story. During the 19th century, the auques introduced new themes moralizing fables, stories, biographies, plays, etc.

Adults read and discussed the auques, and children played with them. They also became important for publishing business in cities such as Barcelona. Amades described different auques. Some of these auques were hand painted, and Amades states that painting auques was a very popular entertainment , p. Another auca produced in Madrid was a compression of Historia de Don Quijote; it only included 24 vignettes selected by the editor.

The text that complemented the images sometimes demonstrated that the creators of these printings had never read the original novel. Even if the name of the publisher and the publication year are not so difficult to identify, in most of these auques it is not easy to recognize the artists behind the production.

Scolari International Journal of Communication 8 Figure 1. Auca de Montserrat This auca used a slightly different model, with only 40 vignettes presented in a rectangular format the vignettes were usually square. Amades reproduced some of the verses written under the vignettes. Usually these verses were compressed into two lines: By the same host, he is knighted. Attack, blind, a herd, causing much damage.

When they entered Barcelona, the boys whistled at them. Amades, Carlos A. Scolari International Journal of Communication 8 Figure 2. Aventuras de Don Quijote de la Mancha As Don Quixote was actually welcomed when he entered Barcelona in the second part of the romance, Amades believes that this auca demonstrates that sometimes the authors were not familiar with the original novel. One of the most interesting auques from the perspective of transmedia storytelling was published in Madrid and was dedicated to the Vida del Gran Sancho Panza The Life of the Great Sancho Panza.

Amades described it from a genuinely contemporary narratological perspective: This funny auca tells the adventures of the great Don Quixote through the life of his servant Sancho Panza, and tends to present it from a comical perspective and related to the donkeys. We may consider them as a reduction, a graphic transposition of the novel that does not invent anything and which is limited to showing and explaining the scenes of the novel. This document presents something else: it describes the birth of the protagonist, a fact which Cervantes never mentioned.

The adventures of Don Quixote were so popular and well integrated into the social imaginary that the creators of the auques could play with the structure of the story when they made reductions or adaptations.

Even if this auca was created for a highbrow reader, Amades concluded that the low quality of the images and text, added to the already mentioned narrative errors, were not worse than other popular auques already in circulation. Scolari International Journal of Communication 8 Figure 4. Historia del Nuevo Don Quijote n.

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This auca by Bosch was a parody published in a journalistic context. It tells the story of an immoral political character of the second half of the 19th century. Both auques, the first composed of 72 vignettes and the second by 28, included images of Don Quixote and Sancho Panza among other human characters and animals and in different kinds of situations. Figure 5. Scolari International Journal of Communication 8 The description of the textual corpus ends here.

Although Amades described many other popular formats—postcards, playing cards, ceramics, and so on—the analysis here will be limited to the auques. This short list of texts offers enough material to start reflecting on the transmedia storytelling practices in the grey zone. Figure 6. In general, auques included two verses, but on certain occasions they had three: Don Quixote in his foibles, started reading, books of chivalry.

As already seen in the previous sections, the reduction process allows different possibilities. In general, the reductions were characterized by a lack of equilibrium: Sometimes the main scenes from the novel disappeared, but secondary aspects were included in the auca.

In their Semiotics of Passions, Greimas and Fontanille introduced the concept of sensitization. Historie de Don Quichotte n. From a narrative perspective, the creation of an auca poses the same challenges as producing a feature movie based on a novel or comic: They are both processes that involve intersemiotic translations from one semiotic system to another.

Should adaptations be included in the field of transmedia storytelling? Furthermore, adaptations are a basic textual component of transmedial narrative worlds and therefore cannot be excluded from the analytical research corpus. Can other categories such as paratextuality or intertextuality be applied to the auques inspired by Don Quixote? It would not be an exaggeration to also consider the auques as a paratext that introduced the novel to a mainstream readership.

The big difference is that trailers are free, persuasive texts trying to entice people to the multiplex cinema while auques were merchandise to be sold. Recaps, for their part, can be produced by media corporations to promote commercial content or by fans. In any case, recaps, trailers, and auques can all be considered as paratexts. Transmedia Narrative Strategies From the perspective of transmedia strategies, the auques include interesting examples of the different narrative operations.

In the auques presented in the previous section, it is possible to identify cases of addition, omission, transposition, and permutation. Table 3 presents a synthesis of narrative strategies. It is apparent that the different categories and taxonomies applied in this article are not perfect: Many textual pieces can be placed in different categories.

For example, the same auca can be considered both as a hypertextual and paratextual experience, and in the case of the narrative strategies, a single auca may add and subtract components at the same time. Textual researchers should assume this limit of supposedly formal taxonomies: The textual networks and the narrative processes are so multifaceted and fluid that it is almost impossible to freeze them and put them into a single classificatory cell.

In any case, these taxonomies are necessary for mapping a textual territory and constructing an initial picture of its liquid topography.

Transmedia Addition Expansion of Vida del Gran Sancho Panza expanded the original strategy elements story to include the birth of the character. In contemporary narratological terms, it should be considered as a prequel to the novel. Omission Subtraction of All the auques presented in the article are elements reductions of the original novel. As already indicated, the reduction process privileges specific scenes and discard others.

Transposition Changes in A couple of the auques described by Amades the normal modified the narrative sequence of the events. Transmedia storytelling is a phenomenon that emerges at the center of these tensions. From the narratological perspective presented in this article, it could be said that transmedia storytelling is a tool for creating fictional worlds.

What are transmedial worlds made of?

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They are made of textual networks. Each text, as every transmedia professional knows, works as a door to the fictional world. Young consumers may arrive at the Indiana Jones transmedial narrative world through the movies, the TV series, the books, the videogames, or the Lego toys. And what about Don Quixote? Scolari International Journal of Communication 8 many other narrative pieces.

For centuries, before the diffusion of mass literacy in the late 19th century, for millions of nonreaders Don Quixote was a transmedial narrative world diffused in a myriad of peripheral graphic textual pieces. The auques analyzed in the present article are situated in the grey zone between the media industry and UGC. If we consider that the nucleus of the media industry in the 19th century was the publishing business newspapers and books , auques were low-cost commercial productions situated on the periphery of that industry.

Small publishers, unknown artists, and not particularly skilled artisans made these productions. They never cared about copyright and other legal issues concerning the property of Don Quixote: Auques were far from the core business of the media industry and very close to the cultural practices of the popular classes.

Auques were consumed, painted, cut, and used in many ways by the proto-prosumers of the 19th century. Auques, in other words, were a typical hybrid product that emerged from the grey zone. Lobato, Thomas, and Hunter , p. From this perspective, auques should be considered productions closer to the formal media systems as they had higher levels of regulation, labor organization, and rationalization. However, they are useful maps that orientate the researcher in the extended textual territories that characterize transmedial narrative worlds.

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Transmedia Project Design: Theoretical and Analytical Considerations

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Remix: Making art and commerce thrive in the hybrid economy.

London, UK: Bloomsbury Academic. Lobato, R. Histories of user-generated content: Between formal and informal media economies. International Journal of Communication, 5, — Against the American grain: Essays on the effects of mass culture. Communication, culture and hegemony: From the media to mediations.In general, the reductions were characterized by a lack of equilibrium: Sometimes the main scenes from the novel disappeared, but secondary aspects were included in the auca.

As soon as researchers enter the world of Don Quixote, they will discover narrative expansions and compressions coming from different territories of the cultural production.

Check, Please! Caddell, B. Media borders, Multimodality and intermediality. In the auques presented in the previous section, it is possible to identify cases of addition, omission, transposition, and permutation.

The narrative is supplemented with a Twitter account of the main protagonist. Pittsburgh: ETC Press. Grau, X. Historie de Don Quichotte n.